Education is believed to be the key to understanding and the road to success. That is why each country aims to give the best teaching method for their learners to enhance their fullest potential. No doubt, Japan is one of those countries setting high standards in terms of education.
Interestingly, Japan leads in numeracy and literacy skills all over the world. Based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), Japan ranked number 4 in math, science and reading worldwide. In TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) series of assessments, Japan’s fourth- and eighth-grade students have consistently ranked in the top five globally in both mathematics and science. Their impressive educational achievements made us think about what is the system of education in Japan.
History of Japan’s Education System
The education system in Japan started to reform after the defeat in world war 2 in 1945. A new constitution proclaiming pacifism that banned the three subjects which had encouraged militarism, namely Morals, Japanese History, and Geography, and the textbooks in these subjects were also eliminated. There were many reforms carried out during the post-war period that includes the establishment of boards of education, single-track system, known as the 6-3-3-4 system, the abolition of Normal Schools and establishment of a university-based pre-service training system, and so on.
As the reformation in education system advances which has started in 1962, the system for colleges of technology established and continue to progress. Until in the 1990s marked its introduction of unified secondary education schools. This broad change of the system influenced by the German educational system (faculties) and as well as the US system(general education at the higher education institutions).
Japan focused on internationalizing its higher education since 1980. International students who were studying in Japan required to complete a Japanese language test. The number of study programs suggested increases including English due to recent internationalization strategies at both government and university levels.
To build up students’ mobility, they held another project in the area of internationalization which called CAMPUS Asia, an exchange project between Japan, China, and South Korea. One of its projects called “Reinventing Japan” focused on internationalized educational programs. The prime purpose of the project was to help in building a connection between Japanese HEI and foreign HEI.
The Global 30 Project that launched in 2009 promotes on internationalization of Universities as well. The program strives to implement a variety of approaches to internationalize the academic systems especially at the Master and Doctoral level, and also in enhancing the quality services provided for international students.
MEXT or Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology is responsible for all education in Japan. MEXT distributes guidelines for the national curriculum of primary, lower and upper secondary school Education. Besides, it continuously offers a scholarship for international students who wish to study in Japanese universities. It shows that MEXT continues to improve the education system in Japan until today.
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Grade school or elementary school and junior high school is compulsory for Japanese nationals. By the end of January, the family whose child qualified for the next school year enrollment will get a notice from the municipal office ( city hall). Usually, in Japan, the school year begins in April and classes are from Monday to Friday or either Saturday. And most of the elementary schools have no admission exam.
Elementary Schools composed of different academic subjects such as the Japanese language, social studies, arithmetic, and science. There are non-academic subjects also like art (including Japanese calligraphy), handicrafts, music, traditional poetry, homemaking, physical education, and moral education. Moreover, they often used information technology to enhance education. Therefore, most schools in Japan have access to the internet.
Junior High School
As of 2012, there are 3.5 million primary school students in Japan. In junior high school or lower secondary school, it has an average of thirty-eight students per class. There are assigned teachers in each class. Lower secondary school teachers also use technologies as a tool in teaching such as radio, computers, television, projectors.
The juniors’ curriculum covers the Japanese language, social studies, mathematics and science and also music and physical education. Students, in general, are exposed to industrial arts and homemaking.
MEXT noticed that teaching of all foreign languages especially English needs improvement. And to improve instruction of spoken language, the Government invites some young native speakers of English to serve them as assistant teachers. Today, the program is growing, and English is becoming a compulsory part of the elementary school.
Senior High School
Senior high school or upper-secondary school is not compulsory in Japan. In the 1980s, the annual family expenses spent on education was ¥300,000. Private upper-secondary schools were about twice as expensive.
Full-time is the most common type of upper-secondary school. General programs offered academic programs as well as technical and vocational courses for students preparing for higher education. More than 70% of upper-secondary school students enrolled in a general academic program in the late 1980s.
First-year programs include basic academic courses, such as Japanese language, English, Mathematics, and Science. Vocational-technical programs include several hundred specialized courses, such as information processing, navigation, fish farming, and business. There is also training for disabled students, particularly at the upper-secondary level, to teach students how to be independent within society.
Universities and Colleges
There are four types of institutions in Japan which is, the higher education in Japan provided at universities, junior colleges, colleges of technology and special training schools and community colleges. At the top of the higher education structure, these institutions provide four-year training leading to a bachelor’s degree, and some offer six-year programs leading to a professional degree. The nation’s prestigious schools are the most appealing for students seeking to gain top employment anticipation. The majority of college students attend full-time day programs.
In early 1990 there is almost 40 percent of all undergraduate students, were in the social sciences, including business, law, and accounting. Other popular subjects were engineering, humanities, and education. Student works part-time or borrows money to the government-supported Japan Scholarship Association to discharge their expenses.
Japan’s higher education provided by both universities and junior colleges. Its method of acceptance is different from other western schools such as they based on entrance exams, not GPAs (Grade Point Average). Furthermore, few undergraduate students of the non-science course will proceed to graduate school, only those who want to work in academia. But during the 21st century, it has evolved a little in which the government requires those who become lawyers to attend a graduate school. And also, the business schools are available in some major universities. As the Japanese economy grows, there is a higher demand for workers who graduated with higher education.
There are numerous courses offered in universities such as in the field of Medicine, Business, Information and Communication Technology, Engineering and more. Some study options you can choose from as shown below.
- Masters in Information Sciences in Japan
- Masters in Economics in Japan
- Masters in Materials Science in Japan
- Masters in Management and Organisation in Japan
- Masters in Environmental Engineering in Japan
High school grading system using a numerical grade from 5 to 1. The highest or excellent is number 5 while the lowest or fail is number 1. On the other hand, national universities mostly used a 4-scale grading system with A, B, C and F. The highest is A while the below-average students are given an F but can do some retakes in the next semesters.
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Every country has own system in education to enhance the skills of their younger generation, and Japan is no different. The country’s educational system keeps updating especially in higher education as well as in the internationalizing program. Therefore, I conclude that they will continue to produce more outstanding both local and international students in the future.